Introduction to power electronics: switched- d DC DC mode DC-DC power . Wind power systems. Wind turbine. Wind energy is one of the fastest- growing. Both PV module models are implemented as masked subsystems in Simulink.
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The 4 basic forms of electric power 22060 are shown. Electro Static generation involves the accumulation of electrons on a surface by rubbing 2 200 together. Electrons are knocked off the outer shells of the atoms of the one of the materials and are accumulated on the surface of the other. The Zap ecwn get when walking across the room and touching a door frame is a good example.
Nicola Tesla made some very large electrostatic generators and demonstrated how to manufacture lightening in his laboratory. He theorized that electricity could be conveyed to a load without any wires.
But such energy is nearly impossible rcen control and thus impractical. It is also dangerous Electro chemical energy was first demonstrated by Volta in There are specimens of 2006 like devices found in some of the ancient ruins near Baghdad but their use is not known. Batteries are a portable form of low power electric energy that are pervasive, especially rechargeable devices that can be used for hundreds of cycles.
Disposal of non-rechargeable devices is an environmental concern today, especially with the proliferation of electronic gadgets and toys that use them. Electromagnetic induction is the principal method of generating electricity around the world via the use of rotating magnets within wire coils. Hydroelectric generators use the force generated by falling water to provide the energy source to turn the magnets.
Where hydro-energy is not available, steam turbines convert heat energy into the force to turn the magnets. Thermal energy is created by combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil or natural gas combustion or by nuclear radiation.
In a few places e. Iceland geothermal energy is used to generate the steam. Most recently wind turbine designs harvest the energy in atmospheric winds and convert it into the force required to turn the magnets.
ECEN The nation’s electrical power systems
All of these systems require large capital investment in generation equipment and the distribution infrastructure required to deliver the energy from the generation site to the end users.
In most of the developed world this infrastructure is in place. This is both an dcen and a barrier to change.
A French Physicist name A. Becquerel first demonstrated photovoltaic effect inbut the concept remained a novelty until when Bell labs engineers developed the first photovoltaic cell. The device generates electrical current when photons of energy from a light source e. Also they only work when the sun is shining. Watt [W] Electric power: Human adult Daily energy intake as food: Energy conversions are possible, but losses as thermal energy or heat are inevitable Chemical e.
Edison Lightingreplacement for gas lamps 4. AC won out because of the better efficiency of AC power systems. Regulation became a necessity as more and more of the population became dependent on the grid.
His vision initially focused on urban lighting, but applications for electric power quickly grew into other areas. His initial technical solution was based on Direct Current D. His competitor, Westinghouse advocated Alternating Current A. These will become obvious as we delve into the basics of electro-magnetism later on. The economic drivers at the turn of the 20th century, coupled with the inherent advantages of distributed energy systems drove a rapid deployment of electric power, thus enabling an unprecedented growth in the economy and prosperity in the early part of the 20th century.
Most of the theory and deployment of the grid concept occurred in a span of only a few years. As the customer base grew and the profit motive grew, the industry became highly regulated, especially with regard to rate control. In spite of the politics AC won out because of the ability of the transformer to change voltages cheaply and the lower line losses at high voltage and lower currents.
Samuel Insull and the concept of regulated utilities. Many customers distributed so as to complement the day and night loading to pay the large capital costs. The value of a monopoly with minimum number of wires. Need to have it regulated to keep from bankrupting the users. Need for public investors for the large capital costs.
Led to the very rapid growth of the use of electric power with the economies of scale going to large generation facilities and long transmission lines and low cost transformers.
A question today is with the decreased cost of inverters to go from one voltage to the next both DC to DC and AC to DC and DC to AC, and the decreasing cost of solar cells and wind energy have the location of the economies of scale shifted in location?
The advantages of a single supplier of electric power for a given geographic area lead to monopoly but this in turn lead to a need for regulation and the establishment of public utility commissions, PUCs.
Large Utility Holding Companies up until made large amounts of money with pyramid schemes and may losses in the crash. Act of for gas and electricity and also the security exchange commission.
SEC This broke up many companies and limit their size and geographic area. Driven by the oil shock of from the middle east 2.
Provided incentive for energy efficiency, renewable energy sources and small gas fired turbines. Allows for Independent power producers to connect to the utility owned grid so that they did not have to provide all there own power and back up.
It required utilities to purchase excess power from qualified sources at a just and reasonable price base on avoided costs to produce that power by the utility. Opened the grid to more competitors of any size and using any fuel and to sell it anywhere. This lead to transmission capacity problems where the owners favored their own generation sources. There even now 7 of these. These balance the loads and generation on an hourly and minute basis and set the whole sale price of power.
Publicly owned utilities municipal: Colorado SpringsFt. Rural Electric Cooperatives 5. These do not operate transmission and distribution systems and do not have the same regulatory constraints.
They can generate power for their own use and sell to the grid. Opening up ownership of generation, transmission ecfn distribution and reduction of regulation with objective of reducing price and adding renewable energy. California had high priced electricity and took the lead to allow competition.
ECEN Renewable Sources and Efficient Electrical Energy Systems
It worked for awhile until Enron and about 30 others figured out how to make more money by restricting the amount of power they generated. This lead to rolling blackouts and high prices. Secondary Sources by conversion from Solar A.
Photosynthesis to Wood, coal, oil, natural gas, then conversion to heatmechanical, electrical B. Hydro, Wind Conversion from mechanical to electrical C. Solar to Electrical by photovoltaic cells, PV D. Solar to Electrical by Thermal Electric Junctions 3. Peak temperature of Materials Fe: Rankine Cycle includes Change of state from Vapor to fluid most coal plants 5. Brayton Cycle stays as a gas. Define Heat Rate as power output divided by the efficiency.
If we use evaporative cooling how much water do need?
The power dcen varies with speed of machine, speed up with drop in power and slow down with increase. Need to control voltage, current, phase and frequency with changing loads and variations in generator output power to match generation to load.
The voltage and frequency outputs change with the speed of the generator. An increased load results increase torque and decrease in generator speed and thus frequency and power output.
Short term fluctuations are smoothed by inertia of the large machines.
Target is to control frequency to between If you get below Different generators have different ramp rates Coal fired plants may 2006 a day or two build up from a cold start. They are not designed for rapid cycling. Gas fired generators 10 to 12minutes.
Solar and wind can change in seconds or less. These are big plants: Big difference between old and new coal plants. Improved by raising temperature from o C to o C and pressure from bar to bar.
ECEN 2060 Lecture 2 August 28,2013 Frank Barnes.
Hg with activated carbon, Particulates with electrostatic precipitator. Control NOx with lowering temperature of the flame.
Fluidized bed can capture sulfur 3. Can clean up S, CO2, N2 more easily. However, it is likely that the low priced coal in the US will be shipped overseas.